Women 5: GLORY YEARS: 1950 to 2000

The expansion of art to include concepts  overtook artistic practice in the middle of the 20th century.

 

 

 

Concept of Woman, 1946, crayon and watercolour on paper. 

Robert Motherwell, 1915-1991, American.  Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington

 

 

A work of conceptual art does not need to have an obvious relationship with the world because its source and meaning are situated in the mind of the artist.

 

 

Detail of Concept of Woman, 1946, crayon and watercolour on paper. 

Robert Motherwell, 1915-1991, American.  Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington

 

 

 

It is this, along with the distorting effects on the Western art market of its extreme commodification

 

that has made art in the last 70 years a free for all of subject, style, colour, material and idiom.

 

The real issue being that a concept worth its weight is as difficult to produce whether you are an artist or a philosopher. 

We don’t operate as though this is true.

 

So now the success of a work does not depend on how good its concept is or its workmanship but how much it sells for and how prestigious is its buyer.

 

Like this woman rolling, prone, down the steps of the MOMA, NY in 2016 to no known end. 

 

 Plastic. 

Performance choreographed by Maria Hassiba, 2016.  MOMA, New York.

 

 

But glory years these decades of the 20th century have still been for the liberty extended to larger and more diverse groups of people to live and work as they will.

 

 

Over the centuries, we have seen naked women in every pose, strung up every which-way to heaven.

 

Distortion #34, gelatin silver print, 1933. 

Andre Keretesz, American born Hungary, 1894-1985. MOMA, NY

 

‘Kertesz and His Mirror’ in Arts et Metiers graphiques #37, September 1933.

Andre Keretesz, American born Hungary, 1894-1985. MOMA, NY

 

 

 

A second change has been a decline in contemporary art created by male artists representing naked women and showing on museum walls.

 

Hundreds and hundreds over the centuries have surely exhausted the subject?

 

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Connoisseurs, 1799, hand-coloured etching. 

Thomas Rowlandson, 1756-1827, British.  Philadelphia Art Museum

 

 

 

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Marbleized Body of a Lady, 1950, oil and sand on canvas. 

Jean Dubuffet, 1901-1985, French. ?National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

 

 

 

 

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Sue, c. 1950, exposed blueprint paper. 

Susan Weil, American born 1930, and Robert Rauschenberg, 1925-2008, American.  Private collection loaned to MOMA, NY in 2017

 

 

 

 

Charleston, South Carolina, 1955, gelatin silver print. 

Robert Frank, American born Switzerland.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY

 

 

 

 

Kneeling Woman, 1956, bronze.

  Alberto Giacometti, 1901-1966, Swiss.  National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

 

 

 

 

Woman Emancipated, aluminum foil, synthetic cord, thread, wool, tinsel, synthetic, metal. 

Dorian Zachai, 1932-2015, American.  Philadelphia Museum of Art

 

 

 

 

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Before and After, 1961, casein and pencil on canvas

Andy Warhol, 1928-1987, American. The Museum of Modern Art, New York

 

 

 

 

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Marilyn Monroe I, 1962, oil and spray enamel on canvas. 

James Rosenquist, 1933-2017, American.  MOMA, NY

 

 

 

Marilyn Pursued by Death, 1963, acrylic and silver gelatin photograph on canvas.

Rosalyn Drexler, American born 1926. Whitney Museum of (North) American Art, NY

 

 

 

 

 

Marisol, American-Venezuelan born France 1923

 

 

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Dinner Date, 1963, painted wood, plaster, textiles oil on canvas, metal fork, leather boots, paint, graphite. 

Marisol, American-Venezuelan born France 1930.  Exhibited at the Philadelphia Art Museum in 2016

 

 

 

 

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Women and Dog, 1963-64, wood, plaster, acrylic, taxidermic dog’s head, and found objects.  

Marisol, American-Venezuelan born France 1930.  Whitney Museum of (North) American Art.

 

 

 

Diptych, 1971, lithograph. 

Marisol, American-Venezuelan born France 1930, MOMA, NY

 

 

 

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Veil, terracotta, ropes, hair, 1975. 

Marisol, 1930-2016, American-Venezuelan born France.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY

 

 

 

 

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Marisol, (Portrait of Marisol Escobar), 2013, polystyrene foam, balsa wood, paper, clay, paint, steel and synthetic hair.  

Judith Shea, American born  .  National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC

 

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Madonna and Child, 1963, acrylic and gesso on canvas. 

Alan D’Arcangelo, 1930-1998, American.  Whitney Museum of (North) American Art, NY

 

 

 

 

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Portrait of Virginia, 1963, metal, wood, glass, bottle, lightbulb, battery, plaster, and polyester resin.

  Edward Kienholz, 1927-1994, American.  Loaned by Virginia Dwan to the National Gallery in 2015

 

 

 

 

Agnes Martin, "Untitled (1963)", Paper, watercolor, ink.

Untitled, 1963, watercolour and ink on paper. 

Agnes Martin, 1912-2004, American born Canada. Philadelphia Art Museum.  Image from artblog.com 

The only work of this artist which I have seen which includes a figure.

Diagnosed after she reached New York, far from the Saskatchewan farm where she was raised, with severe mental illness, the artist reached a large calm and lucidity when she settled in New Mexico in the 1960’s. 

  

 

 

 

Untitled, 1965, felt-tip pen and ball-point pen on coloured paper. 

Louise Bourgeois, American born France, 1911-2020.  MOMA, NY

 

 

 

 

Untitled, ink, charcoal and crayon on burned paper, 1985.

Louise Bourgeois, 1911-2010, American born France.  MOMA, NY

 

 

 

 

 

The Blank Signature, 1965, oil on canvas, and detail.

  Rene Magritte, 1898-1967, Belgian.  National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

 

 

 

 

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Woman Descending the Staircase, oil on canvas, 1965

Gerhard Richter, born 1932, German; exhibited at the International POP exhibition at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in 2016

 

 

 

Baby, 1966, oil on canvas. 

Emma Amos, 1938-2020, American.  Whitney Museum of (North) American Art, NY

 

 

 

 

 

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Untitled (Involvement Series), 1968 oil on canvas; 

Wanda Pimentel, born 1943, Brazilian.  Exhibited in the International POP exhibition at the Philadelphia Art Museum in 2016.

 

 

 

Untitled (Involvement Series), 1968 oil on canvas

Wanda Pimentel, born 1943, Brazilian.  Exhibited in the International POP exhibition at the Philadelphia Art Museum in 2016.

 

 

 

Willem de Kooning, 1904-1997, American born the Netherlands. 

 

 

Seated Woman, c. 1940, oil and charcoal on Masonite.

  Willem de Kooning, American born Netherlands, 1904-1997.  Philadelphia Art Museum

 

 

 

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Woman, oil paint and enamel on fiberboard, 1948.

Willem de Kooning, 1904-1997, American born the Netherlands.  Hirschhorn Museum, Washington, DC

 

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TBD. 

Willem de Kooning, 1904-1997, American born the Netherlands. Hirschhorn Museum, Washington, DC

 

 

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Two Women in the Country, oil paint, enamel and charcoal on canvas, 1954. 

Willem de Kooning, 1904-1997, American born the Netherlands. Hirschhorn Museum, Washington, DC

 

 

 

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Woman, 1965,  oil paint on wood. 

Willem de Kooning, 1904-1997, American born the Netherlands. Hirschhorn Museum, Washington, DC

 

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Untitled, 1964, charcoal on tracing paper.

Willem de Kooning,1904-1997. American born the Netherlands. Hirschhorn Museum, Washington, DC

 

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Sphinx, 1964,  oil paint and charcoal on paper.

Willem de Kooning, 1904-1997, American born the Netherlands. Hirschhorn Museum, Washington, DC

 

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Woman, 1964, oil on paper on fiberboard.

Willem de Kooning,1904-1997, American born the Netherlands. Hirschhorn Museum, Washington, DC

 

 

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Crying Girl, 1963, offset lithograph. 

Roy Lichtenstein, 1923-1997, American.  Philadelphia Art Museum

 

 

 

Homage to Billie Holiday, 1964, wood and paint.

Pino Pascali, 1935-1968, Italian.  On view at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in I don’t know which year.

 

 

 

 

Housewife, 1969-1970, polyester, resin and fiberglass, polychromed in oil and mixed media with accessories. 

Duane Hanson, 1926-1996, American.  Private loan to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY

 

 

 

 

Emma, 1970, fabric, wool and lace.  Dorothy Tanning, 1910-2012, American. 

Loaned by the Nelson Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 2018. 

A representation of the Emma of Madame Bovary.

 

 

 

Leonardo’s Lady, 1974, oil over synthetic polymer paint on canvas. 

Audrey Flack, American born 1931.  MOMA, NY

 

 

 

 

The Dinner Party, 1974–79. Ceramic, porcelain, textile.

Judy Chicago, American born 1939. Brooklyn Museum;  (Photo: Donald Woodman on the museum’s website)

 

 

 

 

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The Dinner Party, 1974-79, textile, porcelain, ceramic.

Judy Chicago, American born 1939.  Brooklyn Museum of Art, NY. 

 

The place setting of ceramic, porcelain and textile commemorating Sojourner Truth, one of 39 such made by Judy Chicago for a vast banquet starting with the Great Goddess and ending with Georgia O’Keefe.

Sojourner Truth, 1797-1883, a woman born a slave who fought for freedom.

 

 

 

 

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Little Esther Phillips (1935-1984, American singer), Devil, 1975, back record cover, acrylic on canvas. 

Charles Santore, American born    on view at the Woodmere Museum in 

 

 

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Ladies and Gentlemen, 1975, acrylic and silkscreen ink on linen.

Top row, Alphanso Parnell;  Ivette and Lurdes

Bottom row:  Helen/Harry Morales; Marsha P. Johnson (who took an important part in the Stonewall Rebellion for LBGTQ rights). 

Andy Warhol, 1928-1987

Warhol had his assistants recruit models from bars and meeting places in lower Manhattan where this community gathered.  He paid each $50 or $100 and photographed them. 

The project became very large and resulted in hundreds of paintings, collages, drawings and prints.  The artist worked directly on the canvas and often with his fingers.

 

 

 

 

 

 Bedroom Painting #36, 1976, oil on canvas

Tom Wessellman, 1931-2004, American.  On loan in 2015 from a private collection to the Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington

 

 

 

 

Alex Katz, American born 1927

 

 

Ada, oil on board, 1957;

Alex Katz, born 1927, American.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.  The artist’s wife

 

 

 

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Black and Brown Blouse, 1976, oil on canvas. 

Alex Katz, American born 1927.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

The artist’s wife.

 

 

 

Night, 1976, oil on canvas. 

Alex Katz, American born 1927.  Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts

 

 

Breaking, 1980, encaustic on two canvases. 

Elizabeth Murray, 1940-2007, American.  Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia

 

 

 

 

 

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 Red Coat, oil on canvas, 1982. 

Alex Katz, American born 1927.  On loan to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York in 2016. 

 

 

 

Anne, 1990, screen print on aluminum.

  Alex Katz, American born 1927.  The Jewish Museum, NY

 

 

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Source, 1976, oil on canvas. 

Philip Guston, 1913-1980, American born Canada.  MOMA, New York

 

 

 

 

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The Piano Lesson (Homage to Mary Lou), 1983, colour lithograph on paper. 

Romare Beardon, 1911-1988.  Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia

 

 

 

 

Venus Pareve, acrylic and plaster of Paris, nine out of a series of 25.

Hannah Wilke, 1940-1993, American.  The Jewish Museum, NY.

Pareve is a Jewish dietary term for a food which is neither meat nor milk and can, therefore, be consumed without restriction.   

 

 

 

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Your Golden Hair, Margarete, 1980, watercolour, gouache, and acrylic on paper. 

Anselm Kiefer  German, born 1945, Germany.

  One of 30 works on the subject of Nazi death camps and its officers (here female). 

Its title was taken from a fugue written by Paul Celan. 

 

 

 

 

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House of Fire, 1981, oil on canvas, and detail.

  James Rosenquist, American, 1933 -2017.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY

 

 

 

Untitled, 1968-83, oil on canvas. 

Lee Krasner, 1908-1984, American.  Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia

 

 

 

 

R.S.V.P.1, 1977/2003, ten pieces, pantyhose and sand. 

Senga Nengudi, American born 1943.  MOMA, NY  The artist reflecting on her first pregnancy. 

When first installed, it was involved in performance with artists entangled in it, stretching it.

 

 

 

 

Virgin (Jungfrau), April 4, 1979, chalk on blackboard, chalk and soap bar on wood table, wood chair, electrical cable, socket and lightbulb. 

Joseph Beuys, 1921-1986, German.  Solomon R. Guggenheim, NY

 

 

 

 

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Lady Dog Lizard, oil on canvas on two panels, 1985. 

James Rosequist, 1933-2017, American.  MOMA, NY

 

 

 

 

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Prick:  Liz Taylor Series (Suddenly Last Summer), 1987, acrylic, vinyl, fabric, and composition leaf on canvas. 

Kathe Burkhart, American born 1958.  Whitney Museum of Art, NY

The artist considers Liz Taylor a gender-non-conforming feminist and a hero for her.

 

 

 

 

Transparent Self-Portrait, 1987, oil on canvas. 

Maria Lassing, 1919-2014, Austrian.  MOMA, NY

 

 

 

Femme Maison, 1947, ink and graphite on paper. 

Louise Bourgeois, 1911-2010, French-American.  Solomon R. Guggenheim, NY

 

 

 

 

Walking House, 1989, gelatin silver print. 

Laurie Simmons, American born 1989.  MOMA, NY

 

 

 

 

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Ingres’ Bath, 1993, oil on canvas. 

Grace Hartigan, 1922-2008, American.  Baltimore Art Museum

The artist is responding to The Turkish Bath of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres begun in 1852 and modified in 1862, now in the Louvre, of women bathing, solely the objects of male desire.

 

 

 

 

 

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The Sitter, 1992, wax, cheesecloth, wood and dye.

  Kiki Smith, American born 1954.  On display at the Metropolitan Museum, NY in 2018

 

 

 

 

Dyke, 1993, chromogenic colour print. 

Catherine Opie, American born 1961.  MOMA, NY from whose website this photo

 

 

 

Lick and Lather, 1993, 14 busts, seven of soap, seven in chocolate on fourteen pedestals. 

Janine Antoni,  Bahamian born 1964.  National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chlorosis (love sick), 1994, ink, gouache and acrylic on 24 sheets of paper. 

Marlene Dumas, South African born 1953.  MOMA, NY

 

 

 

 

Renewal, 1995, mixed media collage of acrylic and fabric on canvas.   

Miriam Schapiro, 1923-2015, American.  Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia

 

 

 

 

 

Sarah with Blue Dress, acrylic on polyester resin and mirror, 1996. 

Juan Munoz, 1953-2001, Spanish. Private loan to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY in 2018

 

 

 

 

 

The Splendor of Myself II, 1997, gelatin silver prints. 

Zofia Kulik, Polish born 1947.  MOMA, NY 

A self-portrait based on images of Elizabeth I of England with the traditional symbols of power replaced by ordinary objects

 

 

 

 

Cry Laughing, 1997, 8 C-type prints on aluminum. 

Sam Taylor-Johnson, British born 1967. Baltimore Museum of Art

 

 

 

 

 

African/American, 1998, linoleum cut on Rives BFK paper. 

Kara Walker, American born 1969.  Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia

 

 

 

 

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Three Horizontals, 1998, fabric and steel. 

Louise Bourgeois, 1911-2010, American. Loaned by the ISelf Collection to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 2018

Louise Bourgeois positioned the three ages of a woman’s life like an offering.

Rolled out into the world on a trolley: like an offering: open to the world and vulnerable, their agency sharply limited by their lack of arms.

 

 

 

 

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Domestic I.D. IV, 1992, steam iron scorch and pencil on paper, mounted in recycled wooden window frame. 

Willie Cole, American born 1955.

 

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Branded Irons, 2000, scorched plywood panels.  Willie Cole, American born 1955.  Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia

 

The artist, an African American, sees the iron in many ways. 

First and foremost, irons recall to him his mother and grandmother who kept house for others and would often ask him to fix their broken irons.

  Branding has a place in slavery. 

And rows of irons lined up bring to mind bodies in slave ships lined up and ready for transportation. 

Slavery created very cotton wealth for the United States: slaves branded with irons – something so dark – transformed into the brightest white, ready for washing and ironing. ‘Pure innocence returns out of the swirl’ as the poet says below.

 

 

 

Cotton, 1997, etching and aquatint.

  Kara Walker, American born 1969. Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia

 

The metal base of an iron is called a ‘sole plate’ and the artist has also made art which addresses the iron’s piece parts standing in for soul and body. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Of strong, robust constitution, 2000, wood, metal, ceiling tin and chain. 

Alison Saar, American born 1956.  Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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